December 4th, 2006

Another Crunk Genealogy

Considering what a solid series it’s been so far, I’m quite proud to present —

Blogariddims ¡Blogaritmos! 11: “Another Crunk Genealogy”
crunkyclave / dembowsalsa / raggyton / bhangrabounce
subscribe to series | download mp3
(60:54 | 83.6mb)

Of course, given the all-around excellence of the contributions to date, never mind the massive mix Heatwave dropped on the last installment, I knew I had to rise to the occasion, so I’ve been mixing and remixing this one for a couple weeks now. I even gave it a couple live test runs, first in Boston, then in Chicago, just to see what worked and what didn’t. And I’ve spent the last several days (not entirely, of course) tweaking and tweaking to get it right.

Continuing with the spirit and rhythmic affinities of last year’s crunk genealogy, Blogariddims 11 traces out another crunk genealogy, seeking the common grooves and feedback loops between crunk and clave, reggaeton and ragtime, bhangra and bounce, to name a few.

A warning to the purists out there: I’ve made a great number of edits to this mix. In essence, I’m remixing most of the tracks as they play — blending, cutting and pasting, mashing, smashing, augmenting, and occasionally, briefly, letting them play “on their own” (though even those passages frequently receive some effects). Overall, it’s is a very “hands-on” mix, complete with microedited dembow snares following salsa breaks (but not too many of those). I think it demonstrates (ok, shows off) one way that Live really opens things up as far as crafting mixes goes. Here’s a (squished) screenshot of the final mess:

click to enlarge

Before I get into the tracklist and the extra-long explication (as is custom) and all that good stuff, allow me a bit of musical-analytical exposition. For, you see, rather than picking a genre or geographic locus or diasporic focus as the organizing principle of my mix, I’ve settled instead on a rhythmic figure — or a related set of figures — to weave across a variety of genres from a variety of places.

Let’s begin with one of a few recurring figures, the good ol’ 3:2 clave, usually connected to Cuba (via rumba, son, salsa, etc.):


It should be noted that this figure’s flipside, often called a 2:3 clave, also informs song structures in various (largely Cuban-derived) genres:


Now, let’s boil down that clave figure to a half-measure, 3+3+2 phrase for a sec:


This repeating cell, if played with kicks and snares, probably reminds a lot of listeners of dancehall reggae’s classic bomp bomp pattern:


Another common way for it to be arranged in dancehall riddims is kick-snare-snare rather than kick-kick-snare, like so:


At this point, all we have to do is add another kick — on beat 2, creating a steady “4/4” / “foor-to-the-floor” thump — and we have another common dancehall reggae pattern (esp from the early 90s), not to mention of course, reggaeton’s bedrock boom-ch-boom-chick:


Now here’s an amazing little leap I like to make: if we switch a kick for a snare here and a snare for a kick there — bingo! — we step into the duple-feelin but well-groovin territory of the American South (and the greater US from there), esp southern hip-hop varieties like crunk, bass, and bounce (not to mention plenty of funk, etc):


Of course, to come full circle, we should note that crunk (etc) beats more often stretch it out, Bo Diddley style (more on that below), and essentially play that ol’ 3:2 clave on kicks and snares (preferably from an 808 or its imitators), often with an extra snare (and some hihats!) for — you got it — good measure:


But, although crunk/bass beats often employ a clave in them (shit, the 808 has a chintzy ‘cl’ built right in — which speaks further to this music’s influence), they don’t usually arrange it in a Cuban-esque fashion, but instead employ it in some other polyrhythmic or accented manner. So let me take the clave out so you can hear the bear crunk, as Lil Jon might say inna Jamaican accent (he did DJ dancehall for a spell):


Frankly, though, Lil Jon would probably pitch down the drums a bit more than I have, and prolly drop some out while maintaining that ol’ rumbafied, big 3+3+2 feel (as is also common in a lot of crunk, as well as bass, electro, r&b, and just about anything out of New Orleans) — something, say, like the following, which underpins a great number of his big hits (just hum the synth line of choice):


So that’s how we get from clave to crunk, with pan-carib connects all around. Or at least that’s the rhythmic network ping-ponging ’round my neural network. It’s a (somewhat strict) concept for a mix I’ve been thinking about, and playing with (but not with these tracks per se), for a long time.

A couple years ago, I was calling it “Flexible Accumulation / Acumulación Flexible” and I was conceiving of it as a way to demonstrate the shared rhythmic heritage of the Caribbean, as well as how such culturally-charged forms both influence and resonate with musical-cultural formations elsewhere — from the American South to South America, South Asia to Northern Europe, West Africa to the Middle East. Punning on a term that describes a shift from Fordist regimes of capitalist production to more mobile, global forms (Post-Fordist, natch) — see the links above — I wanted instead to emphasize the flexibility and resiliency of cultural practice in a world of transnational corporations, elites, workers, communities, and flows in general. And so, undeveloped as the underlying ideas may yet be (I’ll leave some of that to you, dear listener), I hear this mix as riffing on the modern world system, Anglo-American imperialism, Latin/Caribbean cultural politics, and post-colonial societies and subjects more generally. ¿Sabes?

But enough of the theory and the method, to the music —

// tracklist //

0. Blogariddims ident (w&w clave edit)
1. Jelly Roll Morton, “Mamanita”

After whipping the ol’ Blogariddims ident into a 3:2 clave (and fake shouting a fake Spanish intro), I bring in a Jelly Roll Morton side. I was struck when listening to a collection of early jazz piano a few months ago by what a Caribbean feel this tune had, what with its rhythm chords often landing on the lilting accents of the ol’ 3+3+2. Morton once (or probably a lot more than that) famously opined that jazz’s essential ingredient was its “Spanish Tinge” — by which he was probably, various have inferred, referring to its inheritance from Cuban music — especially the almighty habanera rhythm — and other forms from Latin America. (The piece is called “Mamanita” after all.) The collection describes it as a tango-informed composition, and, of course, tango is sometimes thought to have been spurred by the arrival of the habanera in Argentina.

What makes it additionally interesting though is it’s connection to ragtime, another genre that likes its 3s against its 2s. The connection here is less about rhythm, tho, than about form: it employs what’s known as “strain form” — e.g., AABBCCADDEE, or the like — which was predominant in ragtime as well as march music a la John Philip Sousa (perhaps one of the earliest truly “global” styles, projected as it was by imperial military ensembles). I’ve cut and paste the piece around a bit, so the form is not as originally played, tho I do preserve the various strains. I’ve also added some dembow accompaniment to bring out the connections between Morton’s performance and the rest of the mix. Hence a new genre is born: raggyton.

I should note, to be clear, that although the first track is the earliest recording (1924, to be precise), this is not a chronologically-organized mix. Indeed, there is no such overarching logic. It proceeds across time and place sometimes according to thematic clusters, which may involve geography, era, or simply some sort of musical correspondence. I do not want to give the impression with any of these “genealogies” that I seek to construct a canon or master narrative of any sort.

2. Percy Mayfield, “Louisiana”
3. The Congos, “Congoman Chant”

“Mamacita” is followed by “Louisiana,” keeping us in the local area, but moving ahead a few decades to a 1952 recording by early r&b crooner, Percy Mayfield (who recently received the reissue treatment). “Louisiana,” which is supposed to evoke the sound of the land — “I was born in Louisiana, / I love the way it sounds,” sings Mayfield — bounces around with that distinctive New Orleans swing. It’s no surprise that this kind of boogie-woogie rubberband r&b was all the rage in Jamaica at the time, overlaying as it does with deep currents in Caribbean music even as it expresses a Yankee urbanity and African-American modernity.

The Congos track serves as something of a segue, a bridge (back?) to Jamaica. As you can hear, primed by them dembows, the drummer — for all his disco borrowings (a nuh no flyers or rockers without TSOP, y’know) — marks out a clear 3+3+2, thus connecting, in direct rhythmic relationship, some heavy roots/dub reggae to modern dancehall — a genealogy that a lot of people find it hard to parse. (You gotta listen through the 80s, duh.)

4. Lord Composer, “Mandeville Road”
5. TOK, “Galang Gal”
6. ??, “Emmanuel Road”
7. Lenky, “XM24”

The Congos track leads us into a mini-set of Jamaican songs, all connected by yet another musical thread, the trad/folk/work/play song, “Mandeville Road (alt. Emmanuel Road).” First, we hear a mento version c/o Lord Composer (named in the calypso tradition, you’ll note) and his Silver Seas Hotel Orchestra (named after where the bread&butter is). Not only does the playing here, esp the solo, relate to the jazz of the day and thus North American sources, a 3:2 clave comes in to confirm a Cuban connection (if possibly via Trinidad, where son was one stream among several, incl jazz, feeding into early calypso). And don’t miss the 3+3+2 bass pattern to boot.

From there we segue into TOK’s “Galang Gal,” which as you can hear riffs off the ol’ folk song to propel a gwaan-gal anthem. Of course, the riddim accompanying the group is the mighty Diwali by Steven ‘Lenky’ Marsden, which, despite distinctive qualities which made it both a sleeper hit and the harbinger of a sea change of sorts — including a more “straight” or duple feel in the first half of each bar, resembling techno/house — resolves each measure with a 3+3+2 turnaround, thus hitting dancehall’s rhythmic signpost. Indeed, a closer examination shows that the structure of the Diwali — 4+4+3+3+2 — is a common one in Jamaican folk music and Caribbean popular music alike. (Think, for instance, of that cliche congo-line accompaniment: dum-dum-dum-dum dum DUM!) Notably, a good number of grime riddims and dubstep tracks employ the same bass/kick pattern, if at faster tempos.

After TOK, we hear a group whose name I can regrettably not locate at the moment (as I cannot find the physical CD). They are featured on the Nonesuch comp, Island Songs and Dances, recorded by John Storm Roberts. To maintain a couple musical threads, I accompany the singing and stomping — ring play style — with Lenky’s “XM24,” a nicely synthed-up version of the Diwali issued as the final track on the Greensleeves riddim comp.

8. Calle 13, “Atrévete Te, Te! (Acapella)”
9. Mannie Fresh, “Bling Bling (Instrumental)”

Letting Lenky’s instrumental continue, I bring in Residente (of Calle 13) to drop some get-out-the-closet rhymes and move us toward some further excursions en español. To augment Residente’s complex, critical, ironic lyrics, I then swap the Diwali for Mannie Fresh’s extra-shiny beat for Cash Money’s “Bling Bling,” which notably features a 3:2 clave-style kick-snare pattern (as demo’d in the exposition above).

10. El General, “Te Ves Buena”
11. Mr. Collipark, “Wait (Instrumental)”

From there, it’s on to El General’s “Te Ves Buena,” which is a remix of his reggae en español hit that appeared on the explicitly experimental, mildly influential, and totally curious Meren-Rap compilation issued by Prime Records in 1991. Notably, the remix gives the song much more of a contemp hip-hop feel, with a snare pattern indebted to funk breakbeats. But there’s also a break at the beginning of the track featuring that ol’ 3:2 clave pattern played on synth-claps (which I looped for some of the accompaniment to “Atrévete Te, Te”). What I like about the track is how much it clearly nods to reggae (check that rumbling bassline and those chunky “chords” on the offbeat), and yet doesn’t really sound like reggae at all. In that sense — being a hip-hop-informed production of a reggae beat made in Puerto Rico — the song is very much in the vein of proto-reggaeton, save for the sampledelia (tho I abhor that term, I haven’t come up with better — please suggest another).

At a certain point I bring in Mr. Collipark’s minimal masterpiece, the instrumental to the Ying-Yang Twins’ “Wait” (which, gotta admit, I far prefer to the non-instrumental version). That the track is such a stark but unmistakable example of the genre (if the “whisper” variety) shows how deeply the 3:2 clave pattern underlies crunk. Which is not surprising given how long the clave has informed American popular music, esp of the southern variety, more generally. Which brings us to our next track…

12. Bo Diddley, “Bo Diddley”
13. Pharrell, “Drop It Like It’s Hot (Instrumental)”
14. Cut Chemist, “(My First) Big Break”

The classic — which is to say, well-rehearsed — example of introducing the 3:2 clave to the mainstream (aside from all those Fred Astaire, et al., “mambo” records, I guess), Bo Diddley’s eponymous anthem would be conspicuously absent in even as admittedly incomplete and capricious a survey as this. Sometimes cast, imaginatively, as “African rhythms” (um) or “jungle music” (eek), Diddley’s approach might better be described as having reinvigorated rock’s underlying “Latin tinge” originally bequeathed to the genre — in part? in parts? — by New Orleans r&b and early rock’n’roll (e.g., Prof Longhair, Fats Domino, Larry Williams, etc).

Here I mix it with Mr. Collipark’s beat, the 3:2 clave clap from El General’s “Te Ves Buena,” and, then, after a few bars, I add Pharrell’s clave-cribbing, but utterly original, beat for Snoop’s “Drop It Like It’s Hot,” chopping it up a bit to make it better fit the melodic contour of the Diddley riff. Soon thereafter, I bring in a loop from Cut Chemist’s recent album (which contains some gems) which provides a driving, dancehall-derived, but big-beat-bouncy version of the 3+3+2.

15. Gacha Empega and El Hillal, “Salam Aleikoum”

I leave the Cut Chemist loop in for a while as an opening accompaniment for the epic, engaging “Salam Aleikoum” by Gacha Empega and El Hillal — a recording I was hipped to by John Schaefer (the first blog of many that, in some way or another, helped sourced this mix — which seems appropriate given the whole “Blogariddims” concept). It’s an incredible recording, unique, and full of energy, and so I give it a good amount of time here. But not much space. Which is to say, I alternate layers of drumtracks on top to continue with the sonic glue of the rest of the mix, as well as to underscore how the underlying rhythmic framework of this very different song from a very different place ends up overlaying so well with reggae/ton riddims. At times, especially the more staccato solo sung passages, the singers sound like DJs riding the riddim(s). Who knows? Maybe they’ve listened to a lot of dancehall.

At any rate, this is where our crunk genealogy seeks common grooves in music more frequently associated with (and produced in) the Middle and Near East, North Africa, and “the” Subcontinent (and their diasporic nodes, natch).

16. T. Roy, “Malfoof Drum Rhythm”
17. Panjabi Hit Squad, “Nachle Moranie”
18. Seeed (ft. Back Kappa), “Dickes B”

One of the drum tracks I’m layering/alternating here — the one that tends to accompany the chorus — is not a reggae riddim but, indeed, a common rhythm in Arab music, often referred to as the Malfoof or Malfuf, which according to Ali Jihad Racy (see that link back there), “is a fast rhythmic pattern, typical of popular and folk music. It is usually transcribed as 2/4 or 4/4 and may accompany lively dancing.” The recording of the Malfoof that I’m employing in the mix comes from an instructional recording by T. Roy the Drummer, who sells his music/lessons through cdbaby. (Thanks to Pacey Foster for bringing it to my attention.)

After a little breakdown where T. Roy says his piece (w/ a slight return of the ident), I bring in the Panjabi Hit Squad’s “Nachle Moranie,” a bhangra banger which nodded hard at contemporary dancehall back in ’03-04. (And, indeed, was packaged right along with it, not to mention the hip-hop hits of the day. Ah, London.)

Staying on our mini-European tour of the dancehall diaspora, I move from the Panjabi Hit Squad to Seeed, one of Germany’s foremost reggae acts, for another take — from a distance — on the 3+3+2, JA stylee. Notably, I encountered this song as the lead track on a CD intended to showcase Berlin’s hip-hop scene back in ’03 when I was still considering writing a dissertation on hip-hop in Germany. One thing such an inclusion suggested to me — esp given its conspicuous position on the comp — is how closely reggae and hip-hop travel together outside their central sites of production and how they are often conflated or at least closely associated. (No doubt that there are purist scenes everywhere.) It’s interesting that such seemingly far-flung spots as Germany have been growing increasingly central in the global reggae market, if still dwarfed by Jamaica’s prodigious output and fierce claims to authenticity.

19. Missy Elliott, “Pass That Dutch”
20. Raw Fusion, “Funk Into Yo Ear”
21. George Abdo, “Hadouni, Hadouni”
22. Ismael Rivera, “Para Mi Gente”
23. Q-Tip, “Breathe and Stop (Acapella)”

We then hear a strong 3:2 clave bassline c/o Missy Elliott, which abruptly yields to some percussion from George Abdo’s “Hadouni, Hadouni” (itself — despite being bellydance music — containing a 3:2 clave, played on wood blocks to boot). Soon the percussion is augmented by a loop from Raw Fusion’s “Funk Into Yo Ear” (which also features a 3:2 kick-snare pattern — a common one in early 90s hip-hop and pop [think Soul II Soul]). Raw Fusion, incidentally, is a tongue-twisting, reggae-infused, goofy-futurist side-project of Digital Underground who released an album in 1991 called Live from the Styleetron, from which this track comes. It’s but a footnote in my dissertation and would require a post all its own, but I wanted to throw this sort of hip-hop realization of the 3:2 in the mix. Sorry we don’t get to hear Shock G do his thing.

Before too long, I let Abdo and his band do their thing with their strings and voices supported by a little dembow action. (we use so many snares.) I love that this clave-clapping bellydance music was not only recorded but played weekly in my hometown, Cambridge, MA, during my own lifetime; I only wish I got a chance to check it out.

We move from Abdo’s song, which you might note — especially during Missy’s verse — also employs a steady “four-to-the-floor” rhythm (tho I’m obscuring it a bit by emphasizing it so much), which makes it a great segue to the plena-infused salsa of Ismael Rivera that we then move to. (And I should note that we’ve shifted tempo at this point, gradually, from 95 bpm at the start to around 114 bpm.) Rivera, or “el sonero mayor” (the premiere improviser), is one of salsa’s greatest singers, an inventive, distinctive voice and a singer who consciously represented Afro-Puertorriqueñidad. Embodied by the 4/4 frame drum part, the invocation of plena here — a music of protest and social commentary — underscores that commitment as suggested in the song’s title, “Para Mi Gente (For My People).” As genres go, salsa overlaps easily with reggaeton rhythms, as various instruments in the texture provide accents on/around a 3+3+2 cross rhythm, with the bass frequently anchoring things there (though not so much in this track, as it turns out).

24. DJ Blass, “Recuerdos de Antes”
25. DJ Blass, “Reggaeton Sex 2, Track 2”

After the dip into dembow salsa, we move into some vintage reggaeton. These two recordings are both from around the same era — the late 90s / early 00s, as reggaeton was just emerging as a term and as a style distinct from, but deeply indebted to, the underground/dembow/melaza that preceded it. One of the things that distinguishes these latter day (but not quite contemporary) PR productions from earlier efforts is the adoption of synthesizer sounds (including drums and effects) more associated with techno and “club” music than with hip-hop or reggae. Of course, the Dem Bow and other well-worn reggae riddims still maintain a strong presence (though often chopped up and augmented with synth kicks and sometimes reduced solely to snares).

The sudden, almost overwhelming presence of synth drums, effects, melodies, chords, and textures is attributable to at least two major factors: 1) the increasing integration/institutionalization of reggaeton into club culture in San Juan and New York; and 2) the advent of digital sequencing programs such as FruityLoops. Such software, often developed as techno tools (and often for trancey varieties at that), arrived with presets more appropriate for happy hardcore than hip-hop reggae, but producers embraced these energy-flash signifiers of rave/club music and — whattaya know — carved out a space in global electro dance music culture for themselves. Of course, maintaining that ever-present 3+3+2, even (and esp) with thumping 4/4 kicks, didn’t hurt.

The two tracks I’ve selected here both feature ravey synths and heavy kicks alongside repeatedly triggered, sampled voices, chicas talking about they’re not easy but they chupalo on the first date, and some guy intoning a rather uninspired chant of “reggaeton sex.” These may not exactly represent aesthetic highpoints of the genre, but they document a pivotal moment in reggaeton’s twisting, turning tale and they connect today’s futuristic, bombastic pistas to early experiments with synths. Such productions marked a departure from the genre’s hip-hop-informed sampledelic past (tho I abhor that term, I confess I can’t come up with better — please suggest), but perhaps assured the genre a stronger foothold in the wider DJ/disco scene.

26. Mr. Collipark, “Ay Chico (Instrumental)”
27. George LaMond, “Bad of the Heart”

Toward the end of our ravey reggaeton interlude, the 3:2 clave synth clap that begins Mr. Collipark’s hotter-than-fuego instrumental for Pitbull’s “Ay Chico” (one of several strong cuts on his new disc) leads us into a mash of Collipark’s Afro-Cubist crunk collage and George LaMond’s (Latin) freestyle classic, “Bad of the Heart.” (Video here!) LaMond’s song hits all the hallmarks of the genre: plenty of 808 percussion (incl a 3:2 kick-snare clave pattern), chintzy synthesizers, semi-sweet harmonies, and stuttered synth vox, while Collipark’s crunky craziness provides just enough edge to cut the cheesy synths.

28. The Beat Club, “Security (Remix)”
29. Pitbull, “Ay Chico (Acapella)”

Maintaining Collipark’s clave claptrap, I bring in Pitbull’s acapella while switching the Collipark-LaMonde mash for the Beat Club’s “Security (Remix),” for which I should thank G.Scruggs, student, supporter, blogger, and documentarian of funk carioca. In contrast to the more typical sensationalist coverage funk receives, Greg’s been providing thoughtful, careful ethnographic and archival perspectives on the music and its social context, including the post that discussed “Security” and other Miami bass favorites in the funk scene. Though perhaps not as famous as “Battery Brain” — that trumpeted “basis for an entire genre” — tracks like “Security” were touchstones for funkeiros well before tamborzao loops and Fruityloops changed the game, and their stamp — as heard in the 3:2 electro/bass pattern that underlies most funk tracks — remains audible in today’s rapidfire releases.

30. ??, “Bubbling MSN Remix”
31. DJ Darkraver, “MSN Bubbling Remix”
32. DJ SoLman, “UoH Mix”

Before M.I.A.M.I.’s favorite Cubano crunkeador is done telling the anonymous object of his affection that he gets off watching her get off, I slip the bass out from under him, replacing it with an anonymously produced (but tell me if I’m wrong) bubbling beat that flips the MSN messenger chirp into the doggone Murder She Wrote riddim! Given the genre’s own pilfering of the late 80s / early 90s dancehall canon (putting it on a level with reggaeton and KRS-One), I couldn’t resist bringing some bubbling into the mix: Afro-Antillean dance music on some hopped-up happy hardcore hollandaise, sampling from pop and reggae and desi beats, software and video games! Poco man jam indeed. (Thx to Atila for the tracks.) Before long, I follow the first bubbling MSN remix with — believe it or not — a second version of the same, this one identified with DJ Darkraver.

From there, I mix the bubbling beats into some kuduro. How could I resist? I mean, it’s the “new baile funk,” right? All hype aside, though, Kuduro definitely fits in here with its 3+3+2 techno romps, as would lots of other African pop/dance musics. And the low-fi, FL preset aesthetic is consistent with reggaeton, funk, bubbling, and lots of other DIY electronic genres in this genealogy. Frankly, I don’t remember where I got this particular track, but rest assured it was from some blogger or other. (Ok, DJ Vamanos just reminded me where I got the DJ SoLman track. Thx!)

(By this point, btw, we’ve worked our way up toward 130 bpm.)

33. Nayamka Drummers, “Skin of the Drum, Track 5”
34. Wolfgang Voigt, “Nachschub”
35. Mestre Suassuna, “Maculele”
36. MC Vanessinha, “Dance de Peteca”

Shortly after the kuduro track begins, I add some drum loops c/o of the Nayamka Drummers, a Jamaican drum troupe associated with the estimable Sista P of Portland, JA and her Fi Wi Sinting festival/project. This track comes from a CD-R passed to me by Charlie Nesson, a longtime friend of Sista P and of Port Antonio. Presumably passed to him by Sista P, the CD features a half-dozen kumina songs recently and lovingly recorded. To add to the energy and rhythmic texture of the kuduro jam, I alternate between a more active and a more spacious section of the kumina track (once again, they share a 3+3+2 accent), and eventually I shift into the kumina song proper, accompanied from the start, however, by Wolfgang Voigt’s “Nachschub,” a minimal techno track that has always struck me as deeply Caribbean(-esque) with its submerged 3+3+2 bassline and scratchy, syncopated percussion. (Gwaan, Köln!)

Letting the kumina troupe do their thing for a while — including some spirited soloing — eventually I echo them out, leaving in the Voigt track and segueing into a similar sort of call/response, acoustic Afrodiasporic “folk” song, but now moving us back to Brazil. This is a recording of maculele, which as Maga Bo points out, is the local style that has most audibly informed the ubiquitous hand-drum tracks that underlie so much funk (along with that 808-ish 3:2 kick-snare pattern, nodding to bass and samba both). To underscore this connection, I follow the maculele recording with a classic Rio funk track, MC Vanessinha’s “Dance de Peteca” (which I may have grabbed way back when?), dropping out the Voigt toward the entrance to let Vanessinha have her minimal boom for a bit.

After about four bars of that, tho, I introduce a very strong halftime current c/o…

37. Kode9 and Space Ape, “Backward”

which works with Vanessinha for a while, but I shift into Space Ape’s verse proper before too long. (Here is one place, among several, where the mix exploits the half-time / double-time hinges so many of these songs and rhythms provide.) What I like about this track — and dubstep and grime more generally — is the allusion to and abstraction of Caribbean forms. This one, for all its oompah pull, also inserts snares that create a slow soca sort of feel at times. Which, of course, suggested that I mix in some actual soca.

38. Dawg E Slaughter, “Bounce”
39. Ilegales (ft. Johnny Ventura), “Dame un Chin”

Dawg E. Slaughter’s “Bounce” not only represents quintessential soca, it also shows — between the beats, synths, flows, and lyrics — how much techno, hip-hop, and dancehall Trinidad’s national dance music has absorbed. After a couple choruses, I keep the uptempo, high octane vibe going with “Dame un Chin” by Ilegales and merengue legend Johnny Ventura. I’ve been enamored of this track for a few years now — I really like the stark contrasts in voice (esp Ventura’s low, low baritone at the beginning), the hopped-up drums, the superfast rap. Although merengue doesn’t accent a 3+3+2 as strongly as other Caribbean dance forms, one can hear the overlap with the boom-ch-boom-chick leanings of the rest of the mix in the composite rhythms emerging from the interplay between the shaker, the hand drums, and the programmed kick, never mind the accordion, bachata guitar, and horns.

40. Patsy Cline, “Foolin’ Around”

In something of a whimsical mix and perhaps an unexpected thread in all of this, I next bring in Patsy Cline’s “Foolin’ Around,” which like so many mid-century pop songs, features a bassline that traces a 3+3+2 against the duple pulse, as the bass would, for instance, in son or mambo (or the jazz, r&b, and stateside pop they influenced). Oddly enough, the intro to Cline’s track matches the melodic contour of the Ilegales’ ostinato pretty well. Even odder, there’s something of a digital burp at the beginning of this one that, like a stubborn ghost, refused to go away. So I had to accept it and let it stay there, and there’s something nice about that, too. I like when a mix shows its seams a bit. In the end, I’d rather not behind some curtain of digital wizardry, so I’m content with this mistake (or is it a magic accident?).

41. Calle 13, “Suave”
42. Franco & Le Tout Puissant OK Jazz, “On Entre OK, On Sort OK”

We return to Calle 13 briefly for a taste of “Suave,” a typically eccentric, reggaetony outing for the group, and one which seems to borrow various Brazilian musical signifiers (which is not unusual for Calle 13, esp given producer Visitante’s prior musical experience). Deep stuff, and surely broadening reggaeton’s palette as much as the parallel drive toward bachata, banda, etc. in more mainstream offerings. Next, we hear from Franco & OK Jazz, ambassadors of Congo’s own version of Cuban music — or Rumba on the River, if you will — which later becomes known as soukous. Even without the reggaeton snares I’ve added, one should hear a clear Cuban influence in the 3+3+2 bassline, never mind the references to “rumba” and “calle” in the lyrics.

43. Ti Band L’avenir, “Panamam Tombe”

We finish with Haiti’s version of the Cuban son, a/k/a Dominican merengue’s twin — otherwise known as meringue. The song features a similar 3+3+2 bass pattern as we’ve heard across the mix and, moreover, a 3:2 clave pattern (if loosely interpreted at times) played on a bottle. To bring things down as I wind them up, I more or less let the song — the final track of the mix — play out without much manipulation, adding some subtle effects occasionally (and increasingly), and building up to the outro c/o a dubbed-out version of the blogariddims ident clave once more.

And that’s that. Whew. If you made it this far, I congratulate you.

But I hope this text can serve as some sort of resource, both for curious listeners to the mix and for those interested more generally in these musical and socio-cultural relationships. At bottom, I hope people enjoy these sounds and songs and styles as I’ve collected and re-presented them, and I hope they light up your imaginations — and move you — as much as they do mine, and move me.


  • 1. R  |  December 4th, 2006 at 3:57 pm

    Incredibly thorough. It’s refreshing to see someone who treats music holistically.

  • 2. el canyonazo  |  December 4th, 2006 at 8:02 pm

    with your blog, maybe i dont need to go to grad school

  • 3. maga bo  |  December 4th, 2006 at 10:09 pm

    very very very nice work indeed. Can’t wait to actually listen to it. Just the words are worth it! Yes, I also appreciate music being seen holistically. Never thought of it like that, but that’s what it is….

    what’s on send A?

    to answer your question, i think that most funkeiros would recognize the maculele. There is an old song that goes, “sou eu, sou eu, sou eu maculele, sou eu,” that pretty much EVERYONE knows. That’s got the maculele rhythm in it. They might not even know that thye know it, but they know it.

    This then brings up lots of other stuff, like what exactly is the content of our (USA) collective culture. Why is it that if you put 10 American strangers in a room together, even if their lives depended on it, couldn’t sing a song together aside from happy birthday? But this is something else…….

    Thanks for posting all this info!!!!!!

  • 4. wayneandwax  |  December 5th, 2006 at 12:20 am

    Send A is old faithful, a dubby delay!

  • 5. Grant Hutchins  |  December 6th, 2006 at 1:16 am

    I am almost certain that the Nayamka Drummers track is sampled by the Chemical Brothers throughout their “It Began in Afrika”. Do you happen to know?

    Hmm on second listen I’m not as convinced as I was, but there is certainly an overlap of style, and I don’t have the full recording that you have.

  • 6. wayneandwax  |  December 6th, 2006 at 1:23 am

    I think it’s much more likely, Grant, that other, similar recordings are floating around out there than that the Chem Bros got their hands on this recording. This is a pretty obscure, small batch, rather recent sort of thing. I’d be highly suprised if it’s circulating very widely. I don’t know that track, tho, so I can’t say for sure.

  • 7. droid  |  December 6th, 2006 at 11:15 am

    Awesome work Wayne. The Geneaology tag brings up some interesting ideas – you might consider the average ‘concept’ DJ set as a kind of family tree, tracing the connections and influences through a given genre: Acid House through to Jungle or dub to dubstep for example – but this set strikes me more as a kind ‘genetic family’ tree – tracing particular beats through different genres, and ignoring familial connections for more discrete, inherited traits, a ‘gene tree’ of rhythm if you will…

  • 8. wayneandwax  |  December 6th, 2006 at 11:33 am

    Wow, droid. You just prompted an etymological epiphany: I never noticed that ‘genealogy’ had the word ‘gene’ in it! That said, you’re probably right in suggesting that it’s somewhat imprecise as used to describe this mix, either that or it challenges the idea of any such thing. But, yeah, what I’m threading through these songs has (generally) more to do with structure than history, though the two are hardly separable.

  • 9. droid  |  December 6th, 2006 at 5:14 pm

    ha! burned.

    I was actually trying to make the distinction between the standard genealogy of the family tree which traces relatives through history and the genetic tree which doesnt really take any notice of who carries the genes but folows the gene itself, even if it effectively skips generations through recession – which of course is the correct meaning of the word, even if it is rarely used in that fashion.

    Pretty self evident I agree, but Ive been reading a lot of Dawkins recently, and for some reason it seemed significant at the time…

  • 10. siah alan  |  December 6th, 2006 at 11:04 pm

    Knowledge officially dropped.

    Thanks for the mix Wayne

  • 11. Heraclitean Fire » &hellip  |  December 9th, 2006 at 6:21 am

    […] » Another Crunk Genealogy “Blogariddims 11 traces out another crunk genealogy, seeking the common grooves and feedback loops between crunk and clave, reggaeton and ragtime, bhangra and bounce, to name a few.” With detailed rhythmical explanation and extensive notes. (tags: music clave crunk riddims) […]

  • 12. Harry  |  December 9th, 2006 at 9:21 am

    Thanks, that was interesting. For those of us who listen to music but have no idea how it works, it’s good to have the curtain twitched back a bit.

  • 13. nina  |  December 9th, 2006 at 11:07 am

    pretty cool
    i just posted something like this to my personal blog, discussing the 80’s and music and crunk, miami bass, dancehall, reggaeton and so forth. i actually plan to go back to grad school and study this stuff, its good to see other people who are as interested in the intersection of music and culture as i am

    i have long stated that there really is no real way to separate the careibbean music and the music of black america as too many years of cross pollination with haitians and ricans going to and from the south, and creoles from the US escaping back to the islands. cuban musicians in new york playing jazz, and so on and so forth.

    since the 80’s i’e been in Georgia, Cleveland, Philly, NYC, Florida, GA, Puerto Rico etc
    So I feel that I have LIVED it enough to be able to say there is definitely a link.

    My non scholastic take from my blog-

    I grew up down here in GA, and back then it was, as now, ALL ABOUT THE BEATS. Big beats, heavy beats, FATBEATS. Before Krunk was krunk, before Miami Bass we had BOOTY MUSIC. Straight up JUNGLE music. We’d go to the dances and swing our arms and little and then Throw That Dck or We Want Some Pssy or Me So Horny would come on and it was a MADHOUSE.
    I never understand why people separate hip hop and “latin hip hop” and even reggaeton. Its all the same genre with variations. Krunk is the child of miami Bass which is from Freestyle which is from HipHop which IS AfricanAmericanPuertoRican. Reggaeton is an offshoot of hip hop and dancehall/reggae, but HIPHOP was itself an offshoot of Jamaican music. THe circle HAS no end. Theres NO major crew from the damn of hiphop that didnt have at least one of each. Pitbull and LilJon together?V oltio and Snoop (Drop it like its hot, dejala caer mami) Shit thats Luke Skywalker and crew 20 years later, Chuck D and Johnny Rosado, Whassisname and Felipe Luciano. The Fat Boys. Lisa Lisa and Cult Jam. Aint nothin changed people. Aint nothin changed.

  • 14. ghis  |  December 12th, 2006 at 6:47 pm

    Super interesting and clear !
    When people don’t understand what I’m doing (like some of family relative that I see during christmas time), I will refer them to that post :)

  • 15. wayneandwax  |  December 12th, 2006 at 7:31 pm

    Thanks, Ghis! (And urryone else!!) Always happy to be helpful. Bumpful, too.

  • 16. Pete Murdertone  |  December 13th, 2006 at 9:59 am

    shame I cant listen to it yet :((
    top work mate

  • 17. michael  |  December 17th, 2006 at 8:31 am

    Incredible mix! Just ridiculously wide-reaching… which I guess makes it capricious and incomplete and whatever else, but it’s awesome… and I like the way you take things pretty far with the editing and mixing too – chucking down beats over old songs such as with Jellyroll at the start and Patsy Cline (!) later on.

  • 18. Patrick Wall  |  January 4th, 2007 at 8:00 pm

    wow, fascinating stuff and a great mix too. thanks!

  • 19. Baron von Carlton  |  January 9th, 2007 at 11:37 am

    This mix is the mutts nuts.Love it.The above article is fascinating as well.Cheers

  • 20. Fla_Panther  |  January 18th, 2007 at 9:18 am

    Wow, man. All I can say is wow. I’m a big music lover and trivia-head (and amateur musician and DJ), but you’ve got me waaaaay beat. This isn’t my genre, but I know enough about music and mixing to read along with your notes and hear what you’re saying. Awesome shit… and more awesome because you managed to pull from so many sources (and some quite old) and make it into a workable mix that I wouldn’t be surprised to hear on the radio or in a club. While I could probably pull enough sources to do something like this in another genre, I don’t have the skill to make the mix as smooth as this. But then again, a lot of the music I really had my head in is pre-2000 and for some reason a lot of it doesn’t seem to mix well without massive massaging… maybe because it was all analog. I’ve tried to mix a few older songs in sometimes using Mixmeister only to find out they’re a hair off beat and it screws up the computer’s ability to mix properly. There seems to be a more homogeneous nature to music in the digital age, I think. Nothing I can put my finger on, but the small atmospheric things like lack of hiss, beats being exactly on beat, etc. Anyway, I’m extremely impressed, and wish I had the mixing chops you’ve learned! PS – the reason I found your page was from a google search trying to find songs that sampled the bassline from The Temptations’ Get Ready (your page mentioned the song but had the word sample in another place). A friend of mine asked me to do a remix/mashup of the song and as soon as I heard the bassline I knew there was some very popular song that had used it a few years back, but I can’t think of what it was. If you have an idea of what song it was, feel free to email me and remind me! lol

  • 21. wayneandwax  |  January 18th, 2007 at 9:27 am

    Thanks for the good words, Fla_Panther. But I can’t take too much credit for getting things to match up “on beat” — a lot of that was accomplished purely via software (Ableton Live). Sure, I had to put some work into “warping” the tracks so the software knows where the downbeats are (esp tracks recorded without a drum machine), and I had to arrange them in a certain order and pay attention to issues of pitch, etc. But I’m not mixmaster in the traditional sense. Still, I’m happy with what I can do at this point, and v glad you enjoyed the mix and the words.

    As for the song you describe, I’m not sure. Nothing’s coming to me at the moment.

  • 22. » T&hellip  |  January 19th, 2007 at 2:21 pm

    […] In short, I like the album, esp any tracks propelled by Mr.Collipark’s ATLien Afro-Cubist crunkstep. But I also find myself — as a listener, critic, and mixmaker — tripping over various misguided attempts at blatant crossover, run-of-the-mill misogyny, and quasi-political appropriations of powerful symbols of immigrant, Cuban, and “minority” rights. Read it for yourself (or go cop the album, DJs especially — some real bangers on there). […]

  • 23. Fla_Panther  |  January 20th, 2007 at 11:40 pm

    I understand… I’m not a DJ either outside of what I can do on the PC and record to CD (which has been good enough to get played in a few clubs to my pleased amazment) … Mixmeister also automatically finds the beats but it often misinterprets the file and I have to manually re-align it beat for beat – but even then some songs it just can’t get right at all, even with help. I’ve never really played with pitch control in my mixes (except mashups which require it). I suppose it could make the mixes sound cleaner – especially in a mix like this one where I only know 2 of the tracks – but the few times I tried pitch shift I didn’t like the way it sounded. Maybe I should experiment with it some more. Do you normalize your file when you’re done with it? I haven’t in the past, but a few of the last CDs have had songs that vary greatly in bass levels and even major tweaking in the program didn’t bring them in line enough… I noticed your bass levels were fairly level.

  • 24. wayneandwax  |  January 21st, 2007 at 9:04 am

    In general, I try not to pitch-shift or time-shift things too much (unless I’m going for an obvious chipmunk effect or something), but sometimes a small shift in key or bpm can be more or less imperceptible and can make a mix a lot smoother. I’m not familiar with Mixmeister, but Ableton’s “shift” algorhythms are pretty powerful and subtle.

    As for normalizing, I usually use some sort of overall “mastering” compression on the mix, but I keep a close eye/ear on the levels as I go. It’s not a perfect system, but it tends to keep things in balance. I don’t usually like normalize functions, as I find them a little too brute-force–not v sensitive to dynamics.

  • 25. Fla_Panther  |  January 21st, 2007 at 11:12 pm

    I agree that normalizing takes out the dynamics, that’s why I don’t do it. After posting the last comment I realized the problem with the pitch shifting may have been than I was shifting one song up or down a half-step but not moving the other… next time I make a CD I’ll try moving them each a quarter-step to meet in the middle if I can and see how that sounds.

    As for Ableton/MixMeister… One problem I have with MM is that you can only beatmix two songs at a time, and only at intros and outros, not through the whole song. While you can create tracks to overlap those two, they can’t be beatmatched, which means it’s only good for short samples and bits that are less than a measure or two long. But from your screenshots it looks like Ableton lets you beatmatch multiple tracks? And through the length of the song? Is that true?

  • 26. wayneandwax  |  January 21st, 2007 at 11:55 pm

    You can pretty much do anything with Ableton. Period.

  • 27. AndiChapple  |  January 22nd, 2007 at 5:06 pm

    hi – just found you the other day via Blackdown, I’ve listened to the mix a couple of times, you have done really well, thanks very much … and the notes are just superb too. definitely more enjoyable the second time through, first time I was mostly gawping and trying to keep up. if only I knew what crunk was though … as a more old-fashioned DJ (I’ve looked at software like Live & Traktor so I can follow what you did, this really makes me want to spend the money) all the changes go past a little fast but I’m sure I’ll get used to it. and your changes don’t go past nearly as fast as e.g. Acid Girls’ recent mix that Fluo Kids put up.

  • 28. Fla_Panther  |  January 22nd, 2007 at 8:59 pm

    Hmm. I’ll check it out then.

    I’m posting this here because I’m out of options… I’ve clicked on all kinds of links and searched through probably every page here except the one I’m looking for. I downloaded a mix from a post where the DJ (I don’t think it was you?) gave two versions of a mix – one he did, one was done by software that mixes for you. Well there’s a DnB cover of a Fleetwood Mac song I’ve been wanting for awihle but could never find out the name of the track or the artist… if you know the track, the page, or the DJ who posted it so I could ask them… any of the above would be appreciated lol

  • 29. wayneandwax  |  January 22nd, 2007 at 10:33 pm

    I’m not sure what the name of the track is, but I suspect that you’re describing a post by DJ C over at Riddimmethod (which is maybe how you got here in the first place?) —

  • 30. Fla_Panther  |  January 23rd, 2007 at 11:16 am

    That was the one, thanks :o)

  • 31. cdj  |  August 9th, 2008 at 7:49 pm

    nice history lesson..learned alot

  • 32. » B&hellip  |  October 7th, 2008 at 11:09 am

    […] with my previous contribution, Another Crunk Genealogy (#11), I couldn’t resist teasing a particular musical thread throughout my mix. In this case, […]

  • 33. » M&hellip  |  November 21st, 2008 at 11:17 pm

    […] doubt tracing out (and spacing out) another crunk genealogy (or three), w&w will join the Masalacists for one of their genre-spanning, globe-spinning […]

  • 34. ELECTROPICAL » Regg&hellip  |  May 5th, 2009 at 10:48 pm

    […] Luego de la charla básica que escribí en el post anterior sobre cumbia quise hacer algo parecido sobre el reggeatón, pero ya estaba este que llena todo el contenido, desde como el ritmo está presente hasta cómo crearlo digitalmente..el mejor post musical que he visto en mucho tiempo. Check it out now […]

  • 35. Nerd Life Deluxe B-L-O to&hellip  |  May 13th, 2009 at 12:33 pm

    […] Update 13 maj: Jävligt mycket kan man också kalla typ reggaeton enligt denna sjukt bra genomgång jag nyss hittade. Och han har använt FL för att fixa beaten! Posted by grovt initiativ Filed […]

  • 36. gregg  |  July 20th, 2009 at 3:48 pm


  • 37. gregg  |  July 20th, 2009 at 3:56 pm


  • 38. Ioan Roberts  |  September 3rd, 2009 at 3:38 am

    I found this mix equally pleasurable and informative! Thank u very much!

  • 39. Canalh  |  October 24th, 2009 at 6:30 pm

    still working on my “reggaeton’s not dead” mix, Johan from Birdseed’s tunedown just advised me to read this post and man ! what a lesson I just got !! Your mix is awesome… Well I lack of material (have no FL no Ableton…) and time (working fulltime at colombian’s conditions 48h/week minimum) but still, I’ll try to put an humble contribution folowing your track !!

    I only have 2 questions: how long do you evaluate your working time for such a mix ? And concerning the playlist, I am still listening but I think I haven’t read any flamenco/rumba which pass very good to the pattern as well. I was listening to an old LP from meditereanean french gypsies (my LP are home I don’t remember the references sorry) and with the cajon they just did…boom-ch-boom-chick boom-ch-boom-chick !!

  • 40. w&w  |  October 26th, 2009 at 9:54 am

    hey canalh,

    thx for the kind words. glad you finally found your way to this mix. (i guess i generally assume that readers of my blog will have seen this. perhaps i should “repost” it for more recent readers.)

    as for working time, it’s a little hard to say. i definitely put quite a lot of time into this mix, especially the write-up (which was an “all-nighter” as they say). i couldn’t really tell you, all told, how much time i spent on it, but it was definitely in the realm of 10-15 hours (including finding the tracks, warping them in ableton, playing though the mix live, post-play editing, and all the write-up).

    you’re totally right that i could have fit some flamenco into this; as for “rumba” it depends on what you mean: there’s that franco track toward the end, which represents the Congolese “rumba” sound. but you’re right: that ol boom-ch-boom-chick/3+3+2 threads its way through so many genres, we could go on and on and on. perhaps it’s time for volume 2?

    looking forward to your reggaeton mix, whenever you’re able to finish it up.

  • 41. theoB  |  February 8th, 2010 at 7:09 pm



  • 42. theoB  |  February 8th, 2010 at 7:21 pm

    I also see MAGA BO was here long ago…and after listening this, he is out with a respectable album “ARCHIPELAGOES”, a must hear blend of his brazil made riddims and african vocal guests. Thanks for attention, again.

  • 43. DJ Canyon – Wild Ja&hellip  |  March 3rd, 2010 at 10:39 pm

    […] blogger/DJ/ethnomusicologist Wayne & Wax. Originally appearing in his highly-recommended Another Crunk Genealogy, this remix gets a dynamic dembow beat (so many snares!) and some toast from Q-Tip from A Tribe […]

  • 44. » D&hellip  |  December 23rd, 2010 at 10:15 am

    […] as if — along with the clicky claptrap that takes the place of “A Milli”’s crunk-y-clave snare — it were sampled from Zap Mama or something. It’s some out-there, […]

  • 45. Christopher Valdheims &rs&hellip  |  January 26th, 2012 at 3:58 am

    […] seeks common threads in a variety of musical styles from around the world. The pivotal post was “Another Crunk Genealogy” from Wayne Marshall – definitely take some time to listen and read and play with some of the […]

  • 46. » I&hellip  |  February 10th, 2012 at 11:48 am

    […] seemed like a fun task, especially given how much I love tracing patterns across different repertories. But after a few days of intense humming along to myself and […]

  • 47. » G&hellip  |  November 13th, 2012 at 11:34 pm

    […] gonna have to up the ante, especially with downstairs’ subs to exploit. Trust it’ll be another crunk genealogy of some sort. Bottom-line: there’s nothing like playing to a room full of smiling dancing […]

  • 48. The Cajon Man  |  August 20th, 2013 at 5:18 pm

    Awesome….I am just getting into the DJ scene… some of it went over my head. I gonna master this if it kills me.

  • 49. marcus  |  August 13th, 2014 at 5:35 pm

    it’s on and it’s great


I'm a techno-musicologist, internet annotator, imagined community organizer.

I left my <3 in the digital global, but I reside in Cambridge, MA, where I'm from.

I represent like that.

wayne at wayneandwax dot com

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