November 20th, 2008

Ne-Yo Schenkerian

When I wrote about Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent” last week, I mostly wanted to talk about timbre — the effervesynths that seem to give it so much of its tingly, zeitgeisty affect. But I did find myself discussing things like form and rhythm and harmony too. Actually, I pretty much passed on any real harmonic analysis, as a quick ear’s glance suggested to me that the surface simplicity of the song (I called it a “two/three-chord” progression) betrayed a much more complicated — and in some ways not so easily / usefully reducible harmonic structure.

So I decided to seek out some expertise from a dear, old friend, Greg Brown, a colleague from UW-Madison working on a PhD in music theory. A student of Brian Hyer and Lee Blasius, Greg writes really beautifully about Sigur Ros, but he’s also quite able to walk the walk and talk the talk on some 18th/19th century “common practice” sump’m sump’m, knomesayin. So I look to Greg when in need of high theoretical perspectives that remain well grounded. Below, he lends his ears to those of us who’d like to attend a little more closely to the harmonic bedding for Ne-Yo’s r&b fantasy. All hyperlinks are his.

Here’s the audio for those who want to follow along —

[update 1/27/10 — there used to be an imeem link here, but then myspace bought imeem and nuked it, leaving me a nice orange ringtone ad instead; so i’ve deleted that. i’m sure you can hunt down the neyo song yrself.]

Take it away, Greg…

Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent,” harmonically speaking, isn’t going to fit into any neat Schenkerian plan, and not just because of your and my justifiable skepticism of music-analytical reduction.

Because of the meter, I’d argue (and maybe I’ll even use the present, non-conditional tense starting now) that we have to hear the first chord as some sort of I. But we can’t, if we’re gonna be Zocchian about it. (For the benefit of anyone reading this who’s not Wayne or I, I’ll just say “Zocchian” is an inside-joke, a reference I use with tongue firmly planted in cheek. It’s a shout-out to a mutual friend, who’s an awesome pianist who can provide a play-by-play harmonic analysis, score, unseen, of even the fastest, most complicated tonal music.) So, straight off the bat, we lose the ability to proceed through a convincing harmonic analysis of this song in any traditional sense.

Of course, we can (and I will) do so anyway, which isn’t a bad exercise. In fact, the process might help us connect to the music on another level.

With philosophical disclaimers out of the way, I’m thinking we have to hear the song as being in B-flat minor. With no altered keys (five flats: BEADG, if you’d like a refresher).

Whereas the Romantics (not the band, as far as I know) — perhaps in an attempt to ride the coat-tails of Beethoven after the “controversy” — which stemmed from the fact it opens with a series of V-I, not I-V or I-V-I progressions — of his First Symphony, we can’t say it’s surprising or innovative that “Miss Independent” doesn’t start on I. Starting on IV is a little weirder, but not really too weird, because the producers are likely not thinking tonally, per se.

As a side note, this goes well with my theory that contemporary music (lots of dance music, but lots of other music, too) has effectively replaced V with IV. IV used to serve to prepare V (so sayeth the Schenkerians), or otherwise it was simply used to expand I. Today, IV tends to be the place I moves to and from — thus playing a role traditionally given to V — but IV still retains a sense that it’s “expanding the tonic” (another word for I, the root harmony, which defines the key), which is why the music we both love so much keeps flowing, pushing forward even as it asks us to listen to things that aren’t harmonically relevant.

Back to the beginning of the song: the first chord is E-flat minor. But because we initially hear it with that gay (sorry, I couldn’t resist) effervesynth, which starts on — and folds back to — D-flat, the chord is effectively a seventh chord. So it starts on a (minor) IV-7.

So the progression, as I (am asked, for the historical record, to) hear it is:

iv7 — i — VI — VII

(Note: I’m capitalizing major chords and not minor, as most theory students are asked to do unless they attend UW-Madison.)

This (non-)progression is repeated over and over until the bridge, which, by the way, I haven’t given much thought to yet, other than to briefly think about how cheesy it sounds to me. Have fun with that!

Now, I could spend way too long on this. Hell, I probably already have. But one thing is worth noting in particular. If you were to remove the iv7 (which would likely change the song beyond recognition), you get a familiar progression of some pop music (and note: it’s not really a classical progression, since it doesn’t — to Zocchian ears — “progress”). I’m thinking of some hardcore metal songs, the verse of Prince‘s “Little Red Corvette,” or the entirety of Stevie Nicks‘(s) “Edge of Seventeen.” Weird, actually, I think the Prince reference would be on key. Keep in mind we’d have to hear both those songs as I — II — iii instead of VI — VII — I.

So yeah, it’s complicated, mostly because we’re forcing harmonic theory where it doesn’t belong. Still, even leaving that opinion aside, it’s also complicated because the iv7 makes it complicated. It’s a lush, energetic chord that displaces the tonic (i) harmony on the downbeat. When you play it on the piano …

D-flat      D-flat
B-flat      D-flat
G-flat      F
E-flat      F

… you can feel and hear how the iv7 results from a double-appoggiatura of sorts. G-flat and E-flat narrow in on F, and when they get there, it’s just a i-chord.

Jammin!

To help you out, let me finish by writing out for you how I’d play it to really feel what I’m getting at. The middle lines are the right hand (start with your pinky on the top note, thumb on the bottom). It looks like four lines, but think of it as triads. I just want you to see (and feel) the two pitches converging into one. The bottom (bold) line is the left-hand bass line, which I think matches the bass of the song. I positioned the right-hand triads to give smoother voice leading between the first and second chords, and also so that you can hear the riff’s melody on the top, which is where it is in the actual mix. Finally, I just noticed that the melodic instrumental riff follows what I had already notated as the top line of the right-hand triads, but it fills in the F-to-D-flat interval stepwise, while rhythmically anticipating the chord changes. This melodic hook (for your own safety, don’t try to play it at the same time) is in italics at the very top, but there’s no space to notate anything other than each pitch the first time it’s heard. (I’m not notating repeated pitches or rhythm there.)

6 Comments

  • 1. billtron  |  November 20th, 2008 at 11:06 am

    Hmm. Maybe it’s because I was listening to this on tiny laptop speakers, but I keep hearing ii7-vi-IV-V. I haven’t dealt with Schenker since Monica Lewinsky was in the news, but it sounds to me like a turnaround with a constantly deferred resolution. It sort of sounds like a 2-3-4-5 line which should resolve at the beginning of the next measure, but instead returns to the beginning of the cycle on 2. Meanwhile, there’s a persistent syncopated 1-3 (D flat – F) pattern happening in the high synth, which probably is why I want to hear the D flat as the silent tonic. There’s also the drum tuned to A flat, which keeps reminding me of the dominant. And the chorus/hook motif is 3-4-5-7-1, pushing a resolution that is constantly undermined by the instruments.

    The bridge is 4-5-1-5 / 4-5-flat7.

    As fun as this little analysis game has been, I think it’s important to reprint my favorite Schenker quote:

    If the minor mode occurs among primitive peoples and seems even better developed among them than the major and preferred to the latter, this fact alone – so one might argue – should suffice to prove that the minor mode, too – that is, its perfect fifth and minor third – must be somehow rooted in Nature, and perhaps even more solidly so than the I:3:5 of the major mode.

    It is often assumed that savage primitive peoples are closer to Nature and have firsthand, and therefore more reliable, information regarding her intentions than do the more cultivated peoples. This assumption, valid though it may be in most cases, remains nevertheless an arbitrary hypothesis.

    Especially in the field of music such a hypothesis is gratuitous. The primary musical impulses of man should be considered in comparison with songbirds, e.g., canaries, much more than under the aspect of artistic intention. The songbird knows of no diatony, no fixed point of departure, no absolute pitch, no connection between determined tones. All he knows is a chaos of tones, a slurring and gargling and irrational trilling, which is deeply rooted in his animal emotions, especially in the erotic impulse. Primitive man, likewise, fashions but a chaos of indeterminate tones in accordance with his nature. Whether he is in love or arousing himself to a warlike mood, whether he dances or yields to his grief – no matter what emotion comes into play – the tones thus evoked are vague and approximate, whether taken individually or in their context. While it is easy to recognize the psychologic relationship between tones and emotions, it is much more difficult to find in them even as much as a trace of an order. And yet this very indefiniteness must be considered as a first groping step toward real art. It is one of the mystifying features of our art that its truth is not penetrated any more easily for having its roots in Nature! Today we know that the major mode has been, so to speak, designed and recommended by Nature; and yet we need hecatombs of artists, a universe of generations and artistic experiments, to penetrate the secrets of Nature and attain her approval. For the way by which we could approach Nature was merely our auditive sense, which had to make its choice between the valid and the invalid all by itself and without any assistance from the other senses. Therefore, the difficulties in the path of artistic progress were very real ones, and, at any rate, they could be overcome only by an accumulation of experiences.

  • 2. Birdseed  |  November 20th, 2008 at 6:49 pm

    Oh god, I went through my last (ever) analysis lesson this morning and thought I was done with this stupid German-American bullshit.

    I have to agree that the piece is very probably in D flat though. The melody of both the first phrase and the chorus starts with that note, and the only place that feels vaguely cadential (the end of the chorus) ends with it.

  • 3. el canyonazo  |  November 21st, 2008 at 10:35 pm

    is there ever modulation in hiphop? are beats destined to die with the tonic theyre born with?

  • 4. dam-yo  |  November 24th, 2008 at 1:33 pm

    this song plays every hour or so on the local hip-hop/r&b station in boston (94.5). now i can’t even go read a blog without hearing it. lol

  • 5. wayneandwax  |  November 24th, 2008 at 2:37 pm

    Yes, Danny, I definitely have to blame 94.5 for my own (over)exposure to the song.

  • 6. Ne-Yo Schenkerian: WayneA&hellip  |  April 2nd, 2009 at 7:39 am

    […] Copied below is where I went with it. “Effervesynth”? “Ne-Yo Schenkerian?” That’s some wonderfully p(h)unny stuff. Thanks for all you are, Wayne. Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent,” harmonically speaking, isn’t going to fit into any neat Schenkerian plan, and not just because of your and my justifiable skepticism of music-analytical reduction.Because of the meter, I’d argue (and maybe I’ll even use the present, non-conditional tense starting now) that we have to hear the first chord as some sort of I. But we can’t, if we’re gonna be Zocchian about it. (For the benefit of anyone reading this who’s not Wayne or I, I’ll just say “Zocchian” is an inside-joke, a reference I use with tongue firmly planted in cheek. It’s a shout-out to a mutual friend, who’s an awesome pianist who can provide a play-by-play harmonic analysis, score, unseen, of even the fastest, most complicated tonal music.) So, straight off the bat, we lose the ability to proceed through a convincing harmonic analysis of this song in any traditional sense. […]

Wayne&Wax

I'm a techno-musicologist, internet annotator, imagined community organizer.

I left my <3 in the digital global, but I reside in Cambridge, MA, where I'm from.

I represent like that.

wayne at wayneandwax dot com

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