December 13th, 2010

Platform Politricks

orthogonal image copied from some website or other

I’ve been working on this monstruo post since last January, and hinting at it here and there, making it feel all the more urgent to finish though I haven’t had the time to tie it up. And yet, what has made finally publishing this post so hard is also what makes finishing it all the more pressing: the seemingly unending array of reasons to be suspicious and cautious toward the so-called “platforms” of the net.

The issue has, of course, come into more intense relief than perhaps ever before with the last week’s commotion around Wikileaks and the way that what many of us understand as, in some sense, “public” “platforms” hosting “free” “speech” have been exposed as anything but public or free. But we’ve been following this plot for some time now, with ephemeral but irrepressible songs&dances serving up so many canaries in the coalmine. In other words, the so-called platforms falling out from under Wikileaks are the same ones that have been shifting beneath our footworking feet for years. Once again grassroots popular culture — as animated by music in particular — stands as a harbinger for a brave, new, and rather unstable future.

Clearly, mere vigilance will not suffice. New media literacies, even, only go so far. My aim here, then, is to reaffirm (with the support of many smart thinkers) that for those of us who see, hear, and feel a lot of promise in the participatory publics and creative, critical cultures that coalesce around certain websites and protocols, there is real need for action — toward bringing the most popular platforms to heel with regard to users’ demands and expectations of fairness, for one, but more importantly, toward a collective investment in self-determined and self-controlled architectures, where we can share in the value we ourselves create through the network effects of a critical massive.

While I don’t think I’m saying anything terribly new here, as my reliance on the writers below attests, I do think music plays a remarkable role in these matters and can offer an instructive, persuasive thread through this tangled web. Moreover, I’m interested in synthesizing various debates in recent technology and media studies for the music-centered conversation (esp for participants and practitioners — namely, many of you who read this blog).


For some time now, my research has felt increasingly like sorting through a disturbed graveyard, names and dates scraped off tombstones, everything scattered if not missing.

We’ve all seen blogs and blogposts and videos disappear, often thanks to specious legal challenges. Even more troubling, we’ve seen entire media ecosystems, such as imeem or Jamglue, succumb to the sudden slash and burn of corporate logic, which cares little for what we might celebrate as cultural vitality.

Many imeem users were shocked and dismayed when MySpace, after acquiring the site in a copyright-hobbled firesale (for reportedly under $1M), suddenly nuked it without warning. They promised post-facto to let users “transfer” their media over to the misguidedly redesigned MySpace Music, but this turned out to be true only for the sort of corporate-owned content that proved to be imeem’s downfall (in the form of unauthorized uploads impossible to monetize to the satisfaction of certain record labels). The substantial amount of independently produced and remixed music on imeem, which is what drew me and so many there in the first place, simply disappeared into the e-ther.

What’s striking is how much more vibrant imeem was as a musical-cultural space than MySpace Music or Facebook could ever be — precisely because it was so unruly. For some time, it stood as a remarkable platform for musically-organized social networks, musically-animated public conversations, and the peer-based, non-commercial sharing of worlds upon worlds of music.

I mean it when I say imeem was amazing: I often found myself drawn into a veritable maze of media there. As a somewhat self-contained (but outwardly connected & embedded) media ecology, it managed to become a willynilly archive for all kinds of audio (YouTube now largely fills this function, of course), and it networked a variety of vibrant publics (e.g., juke publics, Trini publics, West Indian publics, Caribbeanist publics, nu-whirled publics, and so on).

Unfortunately, especially from a research/advocacy perspective, unlike the more widely mourned and archived Geocities, no one seems to have mirrored imeem — or even get decent screenshots. More recently, a similar site, Jamglue, which also offered users the ability to (re)mix tracks online, joined imeem in the web2.0 scrapheap (though that metaphor fails to capture the utter lack of scraps left behind). At least in this case, there was a little notice, leaving me enough time to get some screengrabs. A glance at the number of jerkin mixes and tracks in circulation at the time of the site’s shuttering, most of them home-produced, is impressive:

This disappearance of archives, of crucial contextual data, is a product of “preferred” protocols as dictated by Big Copyright. Flash-based media are not so easily archived. (Had torrent technology triumphed in the battle over critically-massive streaming media, we likely wouldn’t be having the same problems.) And the sort of ad-hoc archiving that perseveres in an age of flash-media — save something here, fave something there — will hardly help us to reconstruct some of the most important information we lose when sites like imeem go under (whether data or “metadata”). Even if many of us take the trouble to download an FLV file or rip some other format from it, that’s hardly the same sort of preservation as one that would keep intact the broader contextual framework for any particular instantiation of audio or video. When platforms go poof, a lot more disappears than awesome dance vids.

Following a host of media scholars, we might productively (if provisionally) think of all this contextual data — interfaces, playlists, connections, conversations, and records of embeds and changes and the like — and to the careful cultivation it calls for, as constituting a particular site’s ecology (which, of course, is itself embedded in other ecologies, not to mention situated in various topographies). Thinking about media in terms of “ecologies” or “topographies” can help us to understand the implications of the so-called “architectures of participation” that increasingly structure social connectivity and cultural production. Such biological and spatial metaphors suggest modes of interplay as well as types of terrain, as shaped by particular affordances & constraints.

It is instructive to note how the distinctive design and address of Fotolog, for example, facilitated the efflorescence of flogger culture in Argentina and beyond. No less a spokesperson than the de facto leader of the floggers, a tomgirl photogenic who calls herself Cumbio, has discussed the signal differences of certain socially-networked media-sharing sites, and how they can seem inviting in certain ways, or not:

“Facebook asks your religion, your eye color, your relationship status,” she explains, “We don’t ask any of those things. We floggers just accept people as they are. We say, ‘Show yourself.’ And we accept you.”

Floggers may be an extreme example in this regard; after all, they’re named after their preferred platform for a reason. But given such a clearly constitutive relation, we might wonder about the implications, say, for a substantial shift away from Fotolog (in Argentina, at least) in the wake of increasing inroads by Facebook:

Given the important irruptions of the public sphere that floggers staged in Argentina and across Latin America, we might find a statistical plunge like that worrisome. When we talk about disappearing platforms, we’re also talking about disappearing people. And in reflecting on various kinds of “disappearing people” on the net, from bloggers to floggers to subjects of extraordinary renditions that never get leaked, I inevitably start thinking of this as a serious collective action problem.

For some time, including rather explicitly on this here blog (sheesh — that post is nearly 4 years old!), we’ve been bearing witness to, and bemoaning, the effects and losses associated with this relocation of public culture to the corporate net. But we haven’t done much at all to change the status quo.


After my “Skinny Jeans and Fruity Loops” talk last year, the ever-sharp Chrysaora asked me the silly but poignant question above. At the time, she was working at MIT’s Center for Future Civic Media, and my concerns about public music-and-dance culture on the web clearly resonated with the underlying issues they’ve been exploring there. My answer was, simply, no. Savvy as they clearly are, I don’t generally see a lot of young people (or older folks, really, myself & peers & forbears included) employing what we might call a strategic approach to culture on the net; rather, it would better be described as tactical.

But alas, moving relatively unhindered from imeem to the next thing, or ignoring ‘watermarks’ from demo/unauthorized software — essentially privileging, as I’ve put it elsewhere, “participation, immersion and immediacy” — is not what activist-artists usually have in mind when they talk about “tactical media.” The sort of tactics we behold on web2.0 may represent a form of subversion, in a sense, but they hardly constitute an intervention.

As I attempted to trace out in the “Sounds of the Wide, Wired World,” what we see and hear on the net offers ground for celebration. And yet, the audible and visible aesthetic traces of our compromised ability to freely share the fruits of collective creativity also remind us that we’re building our cultural heritage on shaky foundations. They may even highlight what Siva Vaidhyanathan, in his forthcoming The Googlization of Everything, would call a “public failure.”

Clearly, this predicament is far from ideal. “Kids these days” enjoy an effervescent, exciting, but deeply compromised public culture. Which, among other things, gives the lie to facile celebrations of “millennials” or “digital natives” as inherently or naturally equipped to navigate this brave new world. Take, for example, David Parry’s warnings about assuming far more digital literacy on the part of our students (and brothers and sisters and sons and daughters) than is warranted:

I do not mean here to suggest all of that nonsense about digital natives versus non-digital natives; indeed I am actually suggesting something quite the opposite: students are not digital natives who possess some unique set of skills whereby they can magically manipulate the network and gadgets to do whatever they want with outstanding acumen, rather that students are for the large part unreflective about the way they use these network technologies, and what is more are unreflective about the ways in which their use (or our use) has already been historically determined and shaped, an unreflective response which gives up power and control over to these systems.

And yet, as important a reminder as this is, the critique of naive kids and their crummy tactics can also go too far, as in the elitist screeds of Andrew Keen, Mark Bauerlein, or Jaron Lanier. As pointed out in a pointed critique in Pop Matters, such rants tend to miss out on a lot of what does drive this stuff — the sort of thing I’ve celebrated here again and again, the stuff of music as social life:

The implication of Lanier’s argument is that people are motivated to create only by rewards rather than by the pleasure of creation or participation itself, an assertion belied by Web 2.0 voluntarism. “In the open culture future, your creativity and expression would also be unpaid, since you would be a volunteer in the army of the long tail. That would leave nothing for you.”

Nothing, that is, except the pleasure that stems from creative work itself, the solidarity that derives from participation, the satisfaction of contributing useful social labor, and the expanded potential for recognition expressed in non-monetary terms.

This calls attention to the importance of understanding what motivates people to do what they do (and hence opens up important space for ethnography). The question of motivation came into fine focus, at least for bloggers, with last February’s so-called “musicblogocide” (which also extended to such seemingly unlikely targets as insouciant teen fashion blogs).

What the musicblogocide debacle highlighted was that, at least in some quarters, a spectacular instance of platform failure can actually prove instructive. In addition to generating thoughtful takes and helpful hints, a number of afflicted blogs relocated to their own server space and others adandoned Blogger preemptively.

Among those that moved, some offered poignant testimony about what they do and why they take umbrage at having their platform unjustly pulled out from under them. Allow me to quote Masala’s manifesto-like response to Blogger in some length:

– At Masala we believe that music, like culture and art at large, is a mix of influences and is largely derivative. No artist is creating anything from scratch. We also believe that if the copyright laws (DMCA) prevent culture and music from circulating and being reinterpreted and mix, we’re moving towards a monolithic culture (to the economic benefit of a few).
– The music we’re promoting here is the incarnation of this idea. It’s often music made by young people wired to the world through internet or 1st, 2nd or 3rd generation immigrants. People who are inventing themselves through and with the world they’re living in, trying to connect their local tradition and history with what they receive from the outside.
– We believe that by posting MP3s on this blog, we’re encouraging people to broaden their horizons, be curious and open minded about other peoples music and in the case it’s possible, (and it’s often not possible), to buy the music, support the artist and the people who made it possible to circulate.
– Don’t believe the hype, every download is not a theft or one less sale. Music lovers have a pretty limited bank account. But do support art when you can! Recording music industry is shifting and doesn’t make as much money as they used to and on the other hand, the music industry at large is doing ok (publishing, shows, merchandising, sponsorship etc.).

This resonates righteously with Larisa Mann’s (aka, DJ Ripley’s) notion of “saving the world” (a phrasing that also evokes archives), by which she means to underscore how music blogs, regardless of the platform on which they’re hosted, are an important part of the cultural ecology of popular music and the forms of sociability that grow up around it —

Masalacism is a perfect example of music-making, in that the blog is part of the conditions for my favorite music, it creates the possibility of audience for/creation of music variously rooted in geographically and socially distant scenes.

I’m talking about music as a social practice, not music as a recording or a particular moment frozen in time or on paper. Masalacism makes music involving actors from all over the world, it draws them together and opens lines of communication between people, places, scenes, who might not get to know of each other in any other way. This is some of the best music-making there is, in my opinion. I love the specific &local, juxtaposed with other specific & local, to make a kind of conversation between localities and experiences, when music does this well, it also does this for the bodies &minds of people involved, bringing them into conversation or dance with each other, physically or mentally or both. Which is part of saving the world, kind of, or at least getting us there.

How do we save a world that can disappear behind a URL redirect in the blink of an eye? In the long term, we need to build better platforms; in the short term, we need to proceed with far more suspicion when that term gets so loosely thrown around.


For internet marketing guru Tim O’Reilly, who coined the term, web 2.0 described the “new participatory architectures of the Web.” A couple years later he put it another way: web 2.0 is built on the idea of the “network as platform.”

In a recent article, Tarleton Gillespie discusses the politics of ‘platform’, arguing that the term serves as an effective bit of rhetorical judo to do the delicate job of knitting together the multiple constituencies of sites like YouTube — among them, the uneasy triad of professional content producers, advertisers, and end-users (that’s us, pretty much, though I hate being called a user, esp when I’m actually a product). For Gillespie, “This is where the discursive work is most vital.” He continues,

Intermediaries like YouTube must present themselves strategically to each of these audiences, carve out a role and a set of expectations that is acceptable to each and also serves their own financial interests, while resolving or at least eliding the contradictions between them. … Curiously, tropes like ‘platform’ seem to work across these discourses – in fact, the real value of this term may be that it brings these discourses into alignment without them unsettling each other.

More specifically, Gillespie notes that

The term ‘platform’ helps reveal how YouTube and others stage themselves for these constituencies, allowing them to make a broadly progressive sales pitch while also eliding the tensions inherent in their service: between user-generated and commercially produced content, between cultivating community and serving up advertising, between intervening in the delivery of content and remaining neutral.

And yet — and you saw this coming? — for Gillespie, portraying itself as a platform “is a claim that arguably misrepresents the way YouTube and other intermediaries really shape public discourse online.” Gillespie’s use of the term “intermediaries” is important, for he argues that sites like YouTube, or in his own words “a handful of video platforms, search engines, blogging tools, and interactive online spaces,” have become — for better or for worse (for better and for worse?) — “the primary keepers of the cultural discussion as it moves to the Internet.”

Hosting the public conversation on private, commercial “platforms” is problematic for any number of reasons. One of the primary ones — and the one most salient for me — being that our shared culture (especially in the form of recorded sound and video), and all the discourse in and around it, is not only constantly vulnerable to cooptation and exploitation — worrisome as those are — but to outright disappearance. This is problematic from an archival/heritage perspective as well as for anyone interested in contemporary practices, politics/publics, and the chilling effects constraining the creation and circulation of the (peer-to-peer) popular culture of the 21st century.

Without needing to get so romantic about it (e.g., invoking das volk), we would do well to consider the framing offered by Yochai Benkler in chapter 8 of Wealth of Networks, which concerns the power of peer-production: “From the perspective of liberal political theory,” writes Benkler, “the kind of open, participatory, transparent folk culture that is emerging in the networked environment is normatively more attractive than was the industrial cultural production system typified by Hollywood and the recording industry.” He is quick to caution, though, that, “We cannot, however, take for granted that the technological capacity to participate in the cultural conversation, to mix and make our own, will translate into the freedom to do so. The practices of cultural and counter-cultural creation are at the very core of the battle over the institutional ecology of the digital environment” (277).

It should probably go without saying that the biggest threat to continuing the “cultural conversation” on our own terms is the hammer of copyright being wielded by Big Media companies — and more recently, in the case of Wikileaks, by the US government — to force compliance from the corporations who are hosting more and more of our socially-networked digital culture. In Benkler’s words: “the tension between the industrial model of cultural production and the networked information economy is nowhere more pronounced than in the question of the degree to which the new folk culture of the twenty-first century will be permitted to build upon the outputs of the twentieth-century industrial model” (300).

Allow me to quote him at a little more length (as appropriate for Yochai ;) —

In this battle, the stakes are high. One cannot make new culture ex-nihilo. We are as we are today, as cultural beings, occupying a set of common symbols and stories that are heavily based on the outputs of that industrial period. If we are to make this culture our own, render it legible, and make it into a new platform for our needs and conversations today, we must find a way to cut, paste, and remix present culture.

On the other hand, lest technoptimism run away with the spoon, in a provocative article about what he dubs our emergent “network culture,” Kazys Varnelis contends that if “appropriation was a key aspect of postmodernism, network culture almost absentmindedly uses remix as its dominant process” (150). The effect is to invite the tentacles of capital into everything we do, via legal capture and a certain subtle, insidious consumerism:

But such peer-to-peer production also faces challenges. Chief among these is new legislation by existing media conglomerates aiming to extend the scope of their copyright and prevent the creation of derivative work. Even if advocates of the free circulation of cultural goods are successful in challenging big media, it is still unclear if the burgeoning fan culture is critical, or if it only re-inscribes, to a degree that Guy Debord could not have envisioned, the colonization of everyday life by capital, with debates about resistance replaced by debates about how to remix objects of consumption. Furthermore, the possibility of consumers not only consuming media but producing it for the (new) media outlets suggests the possibility of new, hitherto unanticipated forms of exploitation.


In an attempt to debunk the all too uncritical embrace of web 2.0 rhetoric in the tech conversation, Trebor Scholz charges that:

The Web 2.0 épistémè will not just go away. Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of its false claims, its ideological embedment, reinforced by professional elites.

“A fine example of the Web 2.0 Ideology,” writes Scholz, “is immaterial free labor,” which he calls “a fairly unpopular and very complex subject.” But he gives it a shot:

The Web makes people easier to use. By “surfing” it, people serve their virtual hosts and they are not unhappy about it. Online, service platforms rather than products are offered, and users are encouraged to participate, communities become the brand.

It’s precisely this scare-quotable way of “surfing” the net that inspires Astra Taylor’s recent critique of the myriad ways we’re actually “serfing the net.” For Taylor, the key bit of deception is with the word “free,” namely that it excites both the technoptimistic “free culture” kids as well as the rapacious capitalists eager to have “pirates do the work of mass marketers, while industry pretends to defend the very artists they have exploited for so long”:

Where free is concerned, we’re typically told that “the kids,” impatient and entitled, want their culture this instant and will not pay a dime, so they’ve embraced piracy. But the young pirates aren’t really leading a mass insurrection; they’re a symbol or a scapegoat employed to obscure a larger struggle about culture and value—and in whose pocket that value accumulates. The owners of social networking sites may be forbidden from selling individual songs posted by members, but the companies themselves, including user content, can be turned over for a hefty sum: almost $900 million for Bebo and far more for YouTube. Google doesn’t see the mammoth archive of books it currently hopes to digitize as a priceless treasure to be preserved; it’s a trove of content to sprinkle with banner ads. Google, as Chris Anderson points out many times, succeeds because of an almost unfathomable economy of scale; each free search brings revenue from targeted advertising and fodder for the data miners: each mouse click is a trickle in the flood. Technology writer Nicholas Carr and others call this “digital sharecropping”: It’s not that the production or distribution of culture has been concentrated in the hands of the few — it’s the culture’s economic value. Somebody’s got a massive financial interest in free, and it’s not the people uploading footage of kittens to Vimeo.

Given all this talk of serfing, it’s no surprise that feudal metaphors appear to be proliferating in critical discourse about the current state of the net. Matteo Pasquinelli offers up “digital neofeudalism” to call attention to the alarming trend whereby the utopias of the net have shifted “from self-organised media to generic activism on corporate platforms with their closed code and protocols,” a provocative parallel to Jodi Dean’s critique of activism in an age of “communicative capitalism.” For Pasquinelli, digital neofeudalism describes

the polarised scenario where few landlords owns the whole infrastructure of communication (hardware layer, protocol layer, meta-data layer, social network layer) and face a multitude of cognitive workers forced to ‘creativity’.

Describing digital neofeudalism as creating new spaces of rent (and in the process raising the specter of what James Boyle calls the “a second enclosure movement“, namely “the enclosure of the intangible commons of the mind”), Pasquinelli also takes aim at the rhetoric around “free culture,” contending that

profit is the income made selling commodities, rent is the income made by a monopolistic exploitation of spaces. In feudal times, it was the exploitation of land cultivated by farmers, in the internet age it’s the exploitation of the immaterial spaces cultivated by cultural producers, prosumers and the notorious Free Culture.

And while I’m not nearly as cynical and I might take issue with Pasquinelli’s use of music as an example — I’m not sure the situation is “squeezed” for more musicians now than a decade ago; the myth of a middle-class of musicians better off under Big Music is one that really needs debunking — taking a big picture view, with the idea of a hamstrung 21st century (popular, p2p) culture in the balance, this is a necessary and bracing critique.

It’s a little dispiriting, to say the least, that this harrowing specter was raised at least a decade ago. In an article called “Free Labor” (pdf | html), first published back in 2000, Tiziana Terranova argues that, if I may update her argument a bit, the kids on web2.0 “are not working only because capital wants them to; they are acting out a desire for affective and cultural production.” For Terranova, “Free labor is the moment where this knowledgeable consumption of culture is translated into productive activities that are pleasurably embraced and at the same time often shamelessly exploited.”

She also speaks to the particular predicament of such collectively produced fields as fashion and music:

If knowledge is inherently collective, it is even more so in the case of the postmodern cultural economy: music, fashion, and information are all produced collectively but are selectively compensated. Only some companies are picked up by corporate distribution chains in the case of fashion and music; only a few sites are invested in by venture capital. However, it is a form of collective cultural labor that makes these products possible even as the profit is disproportionately appropriated by established corporations.

Recently, a number of artists, writers, bloggers, etc., in sectors like fashion, are picking up on this, um, thread. And clearly, a large number of artists design workers also agree with this perspective, feeling more and more like assembly-line workers in a precarious world of rapid deskilling, reskilling, and unsatisfying work.

I like the Rasta term ‘politricks’ for its slip-tongued critique: in a Babylon system, politics is rigged so better to turn to (and invest in) culture, to various practical toolkits for dealing with, persevering under, and triumphing over Babylonian fuckery. But what happens when that culture to which we’ve turned gets folded back into what Peter Tosh dubbed the shitstem? And where does a total retreat leave us? (All too often, it seems to pave the road not for independence but for exploitation.)

The irrepressible DailyMotion so embodied by youthful (net-abetted) dance crazes tells me, again and again, that the genie’s out of the bottle. They can’t shove it back in. But they can try to build a bigger bottle. And call it a platform.


Against this creepy, creeping context, some suggest that “web 3.0” might well be conceptualized as a “grand retreat back to our own servers.”

But will this vision of an interconnected independence prevail, or will it be a ZuckerBorgian colonization of the net as we know it? Given what I’ve sketched out above, the specter of a “second Internet” should be a scary one–

Facebook, with the private information of over 350 million members, now constitutes what Wired magazine has called a “second Internet.” By encouraging members to bring their Facebook settings with them onto the rest of the Web, Zuckerberg hopes to take this new Internet, with its pretensions to privacy, and place it at the foundation of the old one.

While Zuckerberg’s ambition to reduce the experience of the Internet to a more human scale should be applauded, his site, despite its recent openness, prevents users from transferring their information to other social networks — a restriction, considering the huge time and effort many members put into their profiles, akin to prohibiting homeowners from packing up their houses and moving elsewhere. Moreover, with the site’s huge database of personal information and its hopes to profit from highly targeted ads, Facebook creates its own surveillance problems. If anything, Zuckerberg looks, in some distant but discernible way, like the Robert Moses of the Internet, bringing severe order to a chaotic milieu.

Facebook’s OpenGraph indicates that they’re moving away from the walled garden approach toward simply being one’s portal to the web (like AOL 2.0), but the fact is, there’s an increasing amount of self-censorship in the ever-expansive realm of Facebook. And that’s not great for the kind of unruly culture that many of us prize.

As far as silver-linings go, the Robert Moses reference above makes me wonder: if Facebook is the Cross-Bronx Expressway of the Internet, what sort of hip-hop will emerge from under its overpasses and beyond its walls? What kinds of cultures will thrive in the corners of the net, unhindered by auto-takedowns and the prying eyes of parents and employers?

This degree of dominance, Facebook’s increasing mediation of the internet itself, opens up the idea that Facebook resembles a utility and perhaps, as danah boyd argues, it should be regulated as such:

If Facebook is a utility — and I strongly believe it is — the handful of people who are building cabins in the woods to get away from the evil utility companies are irrelevant in light of all of the people who will suck up and deal with the utility to live in the city. This is going to come down to regulation, whether we like it or not.

Props to Gavin Mueller for raising this possibility, if more cynically, many months before:

I’d advocate turning social networks into public utilities to better hew it towards the Bill of Rights, but not in a country that passes the Patriot Act. We’ll have to wait until the revolution comes to nationalize Facebook. And by that point, lots of people won’t even be able to afford the internet.

But why expropriate when we can innovate? That’s what Mark Andrejevic suggests with regard to YouTube — or more to the point, suggests that YouTube, as a commercial venture, may never become the platform it promises to be:

The objective is data-driven control: the channeling of users’ own activity to further a goal arrived at neither through shared participation not conscious deliberation: that of increasingly accelerated consumption. … That the offer of a platform for ‘non-estranged’ production might threaten this goal constitutes the contradiction at the heart of YouTube’s marketing plan, and helps explain the ambivalence and even hostility of commercial content providers toward ‘amateur’ content. They want the user-generated data without the user-generated content. If sites like Hulu start to gain large and loyal followings, they may well succeed, and in so doing demonstrate that the more appropriate infrastructure for a site like YouTube may not be commercial, but collectively owned and operated.

It’s been all too easy to let corporate enterprise host our collective culture. We didn’t know some of these things were possible, and we didn’t necessarily have the critical capital to bring such things into being. But this is a devil’s bargain we’re making. Certainly we can do better. The network effects of critical mass constitutes a great proportion of the value that we bring to these sites (user-generated data, as opposed to user-generated content, pace Andrejevic). But when will our critical mass become a truly critical mass?

At least in the near term, one way, among many, to address the issue of control (and hence stability/sustainability) is what some have called “virtual rights management” (and hence, activism, architecture, self-determination). Along these lines, see, e.g., the Berkman-related Project VRM (and Doc Searls’s emphasis on internet geology), as well as the Mine! Project (about), or the badly-named but well-meaning Diaspora, or the fledgling Poyozo. If any of these gain serious steam, they can create a serious opening.

While we’re at it, as Kevin Driscoll asked many months ago, who wants to start a broadband collective?

To return to the words of Jace Clayton, let us commence our grand retreat —


Or, as he put it elsewhere and with regard to something else:

The key is openness. Together we can make everything last.


  • 1. jace rupture  |  December 14th, 2010 at 12:34 am

    Thanks for writing this up Wayne. IMPORTANT STUFF!

    Twitter’s #wikileaks weirdness led me to, a robust open alternative :

    Holiday wishes: may all y/our immaterial unpaid labor be hit by the Exchange Value fairy wand and transformed into cold hard cash. Or at least petrol futures quietly monetizing in an offshore account.

  • 2. Siva Vaidhyanathan  |  December 14th, 2010 at 3:58 pm

    Wow. This is urgent and excellent. Thanks for writing it.

  • 3. Birdseed  |  December 17th, 2010 at 9:17 am

    Very interesting post with masses of complimentary reading to wade through, I look forward to it when I have time. My initial thought it that to a certain extent the problem is hardly unique to the net – there’s plenty of institutions, systems and platforms away from keyboard that steer thinking and action in various ways, many extremely tricksy, others structural and/or contingent. Capitalism is pretty good at the platform tightening, certainly.

    And yet there’s always various ways these platforms are incomplete, as indeed they must be – and the language surrounding the breakdowns of these structures has recently, tellingly, been taken from that of physical computer systems. So we talk about “glitches” even in the capitalist system, Glissant talks about computer bugs as his analogy for how thought systems fail. Defacing advertising is “hacking” it. The implication is that the system is used, maybe abused, in ways that it was not originally intended, to create something different and new and potentially subversive. I have a friend who (through micropayments) is collecting money to put up “un-advertising” on bus stops completely legally. The people behind “Cage against the Machine” (Getting 4’33” in as Christmas #1 in the UK) are trying to do the same with the institution/platform of the charts. I don’t much like the latter project, and its fairly ineffectual, but it’s the kind of thing that the platform was absolutely not intended for.

    I think there’s a problem in your critique of Facebook precisely because it doesn’t take into account the unintended possibilities, the “glitches” in the systemic facade, (Not actual computer bugs, but full circle from the societal use!) And I don’t just mean lazy slacktivism measures being pushed through the “like” button, tragic attempts to spruce up the super-closed look, or sending each other links through the photo tag feature.

    In fact, some of the things (the largely Aspergian) Facebook does when meeting the real world’s complexities actually mess with both its own system and with us, the clash between our “platform” and theirs messing all sorts of things up. Take its extreme enforcement of equivalence, recently softened up but nevertheless. Everyone, whether a major artist or your wife, is potentially a “friend”, nothing more or less, reflecting the origin within the closed class-flat world of college. What this means when exposed to a much bigger world of causal contacts is that suddenly that “exotic” DJ from Mexico who you’ve been making animal-cover mixtapes of is your exact equivalent cog, and can comment on that exact mixtape! The global, well-connected middle-class is able to get closer than before, and the sheer size of Facebook’s ecology really breaks down the barriers when you’re all friends and not just followers. I think some of the fallout on here (recent comments by Ivorians and Peruvians for example) is partly a result of that meeting.

    But other things are also brewing underneath. One of the most exciting interfaces between the UK Funky scene and South African House is a closed, invisible facebook group (shout out if you need access, anyone!). The semi-official way to listen into the secret pseudo-public conversations of others through Fan Pages still exists. And various groups are using the apps feature to both promote and decieve…

    Facebook is a huge platform with a huge ecology. Exploring what can be done within it, and what other effects it might have, is just as important as the critical I think.

  • 4. wayneandwax  |  December 17th, 2010 at 2:19 pm

    Thanks for the thoughts, Johan. I certainly don’t mean to suggest that there’s no interesting wiggle room on and around a “platform” like Facebook, but I feel like you overlook the substance of my critique — namely, that despite what we might celebrate as resiliency and vibrancy on such unstable platforms, these are still just a lot of hacks and tactics and as such they can distract us from thinking more strategically about the (needlessly shaky?) foundations of our popular, collectively produced culture. User-interface is important, and you gotta give Facebook credit for making “connecting” on the web easy for so many, but I contend — alongside many other critical observers — that the preponderance of the “value” of any of these massive platforms is contributed by their so-called users.

    I also think that the distinctive features you attribute to Facebook are hardly unique: MySpace and Twitter and the like have long been offering the same sort of non-hierarchical approach, and Facebook’s “fan pages” just shift the separation to the side. Also, if you read up on the history of FB, you’ll see that “class-flat” is hardly how it started; rather, there was a pointed strategy to begin with exclusivity (Ivy League schools) as a way of making the service appear alluring to the plebeians.

  • 5. Birdseed  |  December 17th, 2010 at 3:09 pm

    Yeah, by class-flat I mean “all within the same (elite) class” and nothing else. Twitter and Myspace certainly have their positive points, too, but the feeling of interaction with a twitter follower is way different from a Facebook friend– I think you need to register to get a feel for how. ;)

  • 6. rozele  |  December 18th, 2010 at 12:13 am

    so sharp and thoughtful, as always…

    though i can’t help wishing you’d said more bluntly what i think is at the heart of your analysis:

    that whatever unintended uses we make of these ‘platforms’, our participation in them directly translates into profit for the corporations that own them, which strengthens their control of the cultural spaces that we create through them.

    (control, ultimately, being seen in their ability to unilaterally eliminate those spaces, in ways that generally make them impossible to recreate – Birdseed, that invisible group sounds lovely, but how many of the folks in it could find each other again if Facebook decided it was a pirate haven and booted all of its participants?)

    there’s a situationist poster from may 1968 that says it a lot more concisely (as usual):

    and in another version here

    [sources chosen for irony]

    which leads, i think, to the question of strategy: what are other ways of having platforms of these kinds, which place their control in the hands of the folks who use them? and, more importantly, perhaps, what are ways of propagandizing these autonomous platforms, and of spreading the analysis that works against the continued use of the current corporate ones?

  • 7. Weekend Reading « z&hellip  |  December 18th, 2010 at 2:01 pm

    […] Marshall’s talk at the Berkman Center was preceded by this monstro post, and followed up by a series of fascinating reactions by Berkman people. Ethan Zuckerman, for […]

  • 8. Birdseed  |  December 30th, 2010 at 3:20 pm

    The issue of Soundcloud’s compromise has made me want to revisit this issue again. Soundcloud, of course, is centralised and non-distributed, but nevertheless was seen as a sort of haven for producers and distributors. And yet it’s reneged on that (expectant) promise, because of pressure from the music extortion industry. The same thing happened to Napster, to Audiogalaxy, to Muxtape, to Oink. What happened to Imeem was somewhat different, yet also within the rules of how society works in capitalism.

    What has worked, and not dissappeared, is stuff that has remained hidden, remained outside the spotlight of media lawyers. Uncontrollable masses of non-indexed Rapidshare files continue to exist. Lots of Youtube videos, some intentionally mislabelled, pop up faster than the lawyers can get to them. SoulSeek, bizarrely, is still running and very active, because it’s too small to be noticed. None of these are distributed, none are web 3.0, and yet they work.

    I think this sort of underground, misusing, shady working with culture distribution will have to remain the norm. Who says our perfect platforms won’t be shut down by legal wranglings? And yet they can never shut down all the holes.

  • 9. wayneandwax  |  December 30th, 2010 at 4:32 pm

    Thanks, first, to Rozele for, “as always,” helping to really bring things in focus here. I haven’t responded yet, in part, because I’ve been working up a more full-fledged response in another post. But I want to say that I agree very much with the thrust of your comment — and I love the 1000-words-worth pictures!

    Indeed, Rozele’s comment, to my mind, already provides an answer to Birdseed’s query: we sacrifice resilience for resistance if we embrace a tactical — jumping from here to there — rather than strategic approach. Don’t get me wrong: g0d bless the dark and obscure corners of the net, for these incubate, and isolate, important activities. But some of us yearn for a lot more. We want structures in which we can collectively invest without worrying that the bottom’s gonna fall out from under us without any say on our part.

    I’ll be posting something soon along these lines, spurred by the SoundCloud fail, but asking for people to actually collaborate on something that can get us out of this rut, entertaining as it is.

    Before I bracket conversation here for there, though, I want to note that the differences articulated here perhaps correspond to what Jeff Juris distinguishes, after Graham Meikle, as “alternative and tactical varieties” of “new digital media” (in his case, mainly regarding the world of activist news, though I would argue, easily transposed to participatory music culture). Per Juris:

    Whereas alternative media facilitate autonomous media production and the development of grassroots counterpublics, tactical media creatively intervene within dominant media circuits to confront hegemonic forces directly through projects such as culture jamming, guerilla communications, and electronic civil disobedience. (274)

    Actually, the problem here is that, as I note in the text of the post proper above, what we’re describing here as a “tactical” approach (as opposed to something involving longterm vision) is less about attacking the exploitative system than simply exploiting it in turn.

    At any rate, even at the risk of spelling things out too much, I’m ultimately more concerned, as I think is Rozele, with how we cultivate spheres of alternative (and, to the greatest extent, autonomous) media, than with how we can best tactically exploit the shifting terrain of media “platforms” directed by commercial logic, much as those persistent holes might sustain some of our hopes and scenes.

  • 10. rozele  |  January 4th, 2011 at 1:31 am

    …continuing the mutual admiration society…
    which should be extended in this direction to take in ripley’s post on SoundCloud, which also points to the futility of tactical maneuvers in a situation that calls for strategic action.

    so from wayneandwax, this
    asking for people to actually collaborate on something that can get us out of this rut
    and this
    how we cultivate spheres of alternative (and, to the greatest extent, autonomous) media

    and from ripley, this
    we need to find a platform that is not privately funded, because at base a corporation will always put profit before community[. P]rivate institutions simply fail at stewarding popular culture[.]
    and this
    any law-based control is at the mercy of the people who have in-house lawyers. Physical control of land and material (including servers and satellites) may be our best option. To start with we have to recognize that this is a question of politics, and not just tweaking the rules. We need to organize ourselves to be in control of our own digital resources

    seem right at the heart of it all.
    and it seems to me – from the dancefloor side of the decks – that the SoundCloud debacle is actually handing over a pretty tasty opportunity.

    the folks who may be in the best position to seed an autonomous online space for musical innovation and ferment are exactly the folks who’ve just been burnt worst: the DJs, mixers and music-makers who were the ‘early adopters’ who made SoundCloud a place listeners and dancers like me wanted to come visit.


    physically secure servers exist. i’m a fan of May First / People Link myself.

    open source music-sharing software exists. if memory serves, SoundCloud is in fact built off of some.

    radical techies who love beats exist. and are likely to be easy to persuade to put time into refining software and designing an interface for such a scheme.

    the question is: how many folks who’re being evicted from SoundCloud will put up some cash to kick things off? and, more importantly, how many music-makers will commit to making this new space the only place to find their work online (or at least the primary one)?

    and we kinda need answers fast, before some other corporate pseudo-solution starts lying to our friends…

    now’s the time! we know whose mouths are where. who’s gonna be the first to put their tracks there too? not to mention a little bit of gelt…

  • 11. Generation Bass » A&hellip  |  February 2nd, 2011 at 6:32 am

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  • 12. Lowdjo  |  February 2nd, 2011 at 7:26 am

  • 13. » L&hellip  |  February 11th, 2011 at 12:17 pm

    […] so we bear witness again to platform politricks at work — once more with chilling implications for everyday musical practice, global popular […]

  • 14. » I&hellip  |  March 10th, 2011 at 5:07 pm

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  • 15. » H&hellip  |  March 24th, 2011 at 2:21 pm

    […] file under: treble culture, mp3 as cultural artifact, platform politricks […]

  • 16. » M&hellip  |  February 3rd, 2012 at 12:47 pm

    […] preserving the digital libraries we build. Some will recognize this as but the latest instance of platform politricks, just another rug yanked out from under folks tryna dance with each other. (Though it looks like […]

  • 17. On Death and Rebirth: MCA&hellip  |  May 21st, 2012 at 9:00 am

    […] years before Biz Markie and Gilbert O’Sullivan. It is open-source culture before the widespread “platform politricks” of the digital age, as The Beastie Boys drop the needle on their own place in the American Dream. […]


I'm a techno-musicologist, internet annotator, imagined community organizer.

I left my <3 in the digital global, but I reside in Cambridge, MA, where I'm from.

I represent like that.

wayne at wayneandwax dot com

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